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The Name of Manilius is no less controverted than his Person; some affirming it to be Manilius, some Manlius, and others contracting it compendio improbo, as Barthius terms it into Mallius.

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Epistle in these Words. And though some Antient MSS. Of his Studies, his own Writings give us the clearest and the best Accompt. By those, that is to say his five remaining Books of Astronomicks, for other Writings of his, the learned World is not acquainted with he is represented to Us to have been an Excellent Mathematician, Astronomer, Astrologer, a great Humanist, Philosopher, and which comprehends all the rest an admirable Poet.

It begins thus. What Stock of Credit and Esteem he hath left behind him, will best appear by the Censures which the ablest Criticks of these later Ages have given of him, and of his Writings. Some of which for the Reader's Satisfaction we shall here enumerate. Manilius sayes he was the first of all the Latines who wrote of Astronomy, and therefore, when in many Places of this Work he not a little glories therein, deservedly to be born with; for it is an Argument of no mean Wit and Industry, to have explained such difficult Matter, so aptly and so clearly in Verse as he hath done; to have only attempted, though not performed such a Design, being abundantly Praise-worthy and Noble.

Marcus Manilius is reputed to have been of Illustrious Extraction; and flourished at Rome, when Augustus happily swayed the Empire thereof; and doubtless was most acceptable to so great a Prince for the Eminency of his Learning, and Excellency of his Wit.

He employed his Study and Industry chiefly in Mathematical Arts, with so much Proficiency, as he thereby gained from the World no mean Applause of his Ingenuity. Dierum l. Then coming more particularly to the Censure of this Part which We now publish. Certainly sayes he it is a Piece so useful and advantagious to all Generous Youth, as it ought to prepare their Way to the Elements of Spherical Learning.

Marcus Manilius, whom some call Caius Manilius wrote most elegantly much above any Others of the fluidity, and Liquidness of the Heavens. Statium adds; that he was a Poet most consultive in Philosophy. No less Praise is afforded him by. Triennio where he thus advises the Generous Young Student.

Artibus Popular. To accumulate more Encomiums, were superfluous; Hear himself now speak his own Character. And the Constellations are only pricked out, wherein with Galluccius the Middle Way is taken, betwixt not placing them in any, or representing them in too dark shadowed Figures, as some have done. In the Projection, the Eye is supposed to touch the South Pole, for the projecting of the Northern Hemisphere upon the [ And are ready, to those that are yet more Curious, by the putting on a particular Horizon, for other several Uses.

But yet these Instruments are not true Astroscopes; there is not any point to place the Eye in, for discerning the Stars in the Heavens as they are placed in the Hemispheres; for that will require another Polar Projection much like this following, viz. Holes were supposed or made in the Plane; if the Eye beholds two known Stars shining through their proper Holes, at the same Time it should behold All the rest likewise shining through their Holes, to which their Names being affixed, this Projection becomes an Astroscope to teach Beginners to know the Stars, and will also serve as a Nocturnal for finding the Stars hour, and by Consequence, by Ayd of the Sun's right Ascension, proper to the Day of the Moneth, the true hour of the Night likewise.

Other Astroscopes there are; As one, that being rectified and set to the Hour of the Night, the Sight through two Pinnacides shall be directed to that Star to which the Instrument is rectified. Of All which to treat, is not our present Design, and 'therefore shall refer the Reader to the Authors and Composers of such kind of Projections or Astroscopes.

Ames dici Pater atque Princeps. But the farther he is mounted above the Horizon till he comes to his Meridian Altitude, the shadows are less. By caecum understanding obscurum quid, incertum, vel [ Ignota, as Lambin upon the Place. So likewise Virgil, Georg. And Propert. The Nations who are fam'd for this Invention, are, first, the Phoenicians, from whence it came to the Aegyptians, from them to the Greeks, and among them in the first place to the Cretans or Candiotts.

The Original of Traffick is generally ascribed to the Phoenicians; some particularly attribute it to Mercury, as Ph [ To this purpose likewise makes that antient Inscription, found at Metz, Anno Recorded by Philip. Thomasinus [ Dispersos ignes ori [ By which instance of Lucretius i [ See Turnebus, l. And of Columella, l.

The Poets, as is observ'd by Scaliger.

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In Hebrew, it is call'd G [ In the Coptick or Aegyptian Tongue it is call'd Hopeutus, i. Brachium Sacrificii. Ex fortuna Mactantis; and simply, D [ The 23d and 24th Stars are call'd by them, Sad N [ Fortuna averruncantis, vel divulgantis Nuncium. Eus [ He is mistakenly by Hyginus call'd Orsilochus. So among the Romans, as Ovid in quinto Fastorum testifies,. These yet the Scholiast of Apollonius l. Others make them to be the Dii Penates: against which Opinion thus Turneb.

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These by Diodorus Siculus, l. By the first, meaning Iupiter; by the second, Vulcan; by the third, Tellus seu Ceres; by the fourth, Neptune, sive Oceanus; by the last, Minerva. Theon Smyrnaeus in Mathemat. And from hence the Proverb [ Others make them to be twelve in Number, reckoning them according to this Distich of Ennius. Whose several Interests or Concerns are thus describ'd and distinguish'd by Sallustius [ Says the Original in an indefinite sence, by Senecta expressing what Homer Ili [ But there is much difference among the Antients about the extent of this [ Herodicus, as cited by Censorinus de Die Natal.

Others inlarge it, making 3 [ So Herodotus l. But taken in its greatest extent, a [ So Ovid in the person of Nestor:. Who is said to have mourned his loss with tears of blood, as Homer Iliad Ausonius bestowing upon him this Epitaph. Than whom none is more celebrious in the Roman Stories; his daring Attempt compriz'd in this Epigram in Catalect.

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D XXXI. Tertia [ IS QUE. Of which Ovid briefly in this Pentameter, as cited by Priscian,.

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Confirm'd by Livy l. Strabo l. Appian de belio Civil.

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Which Verses he undertakes to correct or amend, but trul [ And O [ A sadder kind of Funeral than that which Virgil Ae [ And in complyance with that Vulgar Opinion Cabellavius in this following Epigram upon the present Subject. And Lucius Florus l. It is derived [ Thus a Salmas.

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And when this last became transplanted into Greece, and had there taken Root, there was given to it as a peculiar and distinctive Appellation the Name of Astrology, there being reserved to the former only that of Astronomy; which is properly understood, and so described to be, That Science which contemplates the Motion, Distance, Colour, Light, Order, Place, Magnitude, and the like Adjuncts of the fixed Stars and Planets, without any respect to the Iudiciary Part.

As Astronomy, so its Professors were doubly distinguished. So says [ Gassendus, Originem ipsi fecit Admiratio. And upon this Ground we may, with [ Ricciolus, affirm Astronomy to be as ancient almost as the Stars themselves, and that it was first with other divinely infused Arts reduced to Experiment and Practice by Adam himself, and by his Posterity perpetuated, as we find by L.

Iosephus, who writes that Seth, having been instructed therein by Adam, and understanding that the World was twice to perish, once by Deluge, afterward by a general Conflagration, reduc'd this Art to an Epitome, and inscrib'd it on two Pillars; the one of Brick, against the Violence of Fire; the other of Stone, against the Inundation of Waters: One of which that is the Pillar of Stone he affirms to have been extant in his Time, in a Place call'd Syrias or Seirath M [ Astronomy being thus brought into the World, was cultivated and improved by the following Patriarchs, who, by reason of their long lives, had the Opportunity of observing and noting many Astral Revolutions.

To which end chiefly according to the Opinion of some of the Jewish R [ Doctors the Prolongation of their Lives was by divine Providence in a manner miraculously extended. Among whom, in this Science the most celebrated is Enoch, whose Books upon this Subiect are said to be extant at this Day; whence Tertullian and Origen produce several Citations. This only from the Testimony of Origen, citing the Books of Enoch before mentioned, appears, That the Stars were then reduced into Asterisms, under peculiar and distinct Denominations: Touching which Names the said Enoch wrote many secret and mysterious things.

And Scripture makes it manifest, that the Year then, as now it is, was computed by [ For in Genesis, it is said, that Noah entred into the Ark the Day of the 2. Moneth; there is likewise express mention of the 7. Moneth; and that on the Whence we may infer, that the Patriarchs had then the knowledge, as well of the Sun's Course as of the Moons, with their Periods, and in probability of the other Planets. And that the Opinion of those, who conceive the Year, before the Flood, to have been only Menstrual, deserves to be exploded, as most absurd and ridiculous.

After the Flood, and the Dispersion of Mankind over the face of the Earth, the Study of Astronomy began to be improved by several Nations, who doubtless had derived the Knowledge thereof from Noah and his Posterity. So that it may seem no wonder, if at one and the same Time divers Persons in divers Regions applied themselves to the Observation and Study of this Astral Science.

But seeing it is clear beyond all Controversie, that Mankind issued and dispersed themselves out of Asia into Africk, Europe, and other parts of the World, the Glory thereof ought in the first Place to be attributed to the Asiaticks; and among them chiefly to the Babylonians, Chaldeans and Bactrians. Brahae [ They add further, that the Egyptians were so far from receiving the Knowledge of Astronomy from the Chaldeans, that on the Contrary, they affirm the Chaldeans to have been first instructed therein by the Egyptians.

Nor wants Africa, besides the Egyptians, and Ethiopians, other Pretenders to the Invention of Astronomy; particularly the Mauritanians, who are said to have been instructed therein, by Atlas the Son of Libya their King. To pass by the fabulous Age, touching which there is nothing certain, we shall [Page 4] only confine our Discourse to the Historical, which began with the Olympiads.

And yet such was their Self-conceit and Presumption, as confidently to affirm, that Astronomy ow'd its Invention to them, and particularly to the Rhodians, from whom they will have the Egyptians to have receiv'd it, as Diodorus Siculus reports in the story of the Heliadae. Others of them ascribe its Original to their Poet Orpheus.

But these assertions savouring too much of the Fable, perswade us rather to conclude with the Opinion of those, who maintain Astronomy to have been first brought into Greece by Thales the Milesian, who derived it from the Egyptians. Among the Romans it was long before it gain'd Acquaintance, or Professors. For though Orat. Iulius Caesar, who.

He with the assistance of Sosigenes, the Egyptian, reduced the Roman Year to the Course of the Sun, which we yet retain, and wrote, in Greek, of the Stars. From him Mathematical Arts, and particularly Astronomy, began to flourish among them; his Nephew and Successor Augustus, by his Example encouraging the [Page 5] same.

In whose Reign our Manilius wrote this his Astronomical Poem. And thus having clearly and concisely, to Manilius his Time, deduced the History of Astronomy from its Original, I conceive it may serve as a competent Illustration of his Proemial, but brief Indication of the first Rise, Authors, and Promoters thereof. To continue the Progress thereof down to these Times in the same Series of Discourse would perhaps be both tedious and unsatisfactory. I have therefore chosen for the better Information and it may be Delectation of the more Inquisitive and Ingenious Lovers of these Studies, to collect a Catalogue of the most Eminent Astronomers, as well Antient as Modern, their Works and Writings, according to the Succession of Time from the first Birth of Astronomy to this present, whereby the Curious Reader may perceive, when, how, and by whom it hath been improved to that Degree of Perfection wherein it now stands.

Magical arts. Vossius are supposed not to be authentick, De Scient. Poets feigned to have supported Heaven.

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Something bearing his name was printed at Norimberg His Books called [ I believe not at all says he the Story of his winged Horse. But Atreus discovered to them the course of the Sun, with his various rising and setting, demonstrating his Motion to be contrary to that of the Heavens; Whereupon they elected him to be their King. Measures, Distances, and Motions, as we find exprest in Sophocles. Roman year, which he so disposed to the end the Lunar might agree with the Solar year that every four years there was an Intercalation of 45 Days, which he divided and adjusted after this manner, adding to the first 2 years 22 Days, and inserting in the latter 2 years 23 Days.

In which Writings of Mercury were contained besides Hieroglyphicks and other sacred Ceremonies Cosmography, Geography, the course of the Sun and Moon, and of the other five Planets; as Clem.

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